The RSR comments in brackets highlight the obviously intentional sloppiness, for the canonical account of the big bang theory requires this kind of misrepresentation: The Big Bang model was a natural outcome of Einstein's General Relativity... The year after he published GR, Einstein added a constant to support his own view that a static universe had existed eternally.That constant can be arbitrarily valued as either positive, zero, or negative to obtain a repulsive, static, or attractive force that would tend toward expansion, a static, or a contracting universe.] However in 1917, the idea that the universe was expanding was thought to be absurd.- The "It is still widely held that in 1929 Edwin Hubble discovered the expanding Universe and that this discovery was based on his extended observations of redshifts in spiral nebulae. There is little excuse for this, since there exists sufficient well-supported evidence about the circumstances of the discovery.
In that paragraph, he states, "Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of Nature is repugnant to me." Lemaître seized upon this statement in his very brief letter published two months later in the journal Nature proposing what became known as the big bang theory.
What Lemaître sought were solutions to [Einstein's] field equations that would avoid "Einstein's static universe... (Eddington in 1931 estimated the universe originally at between a billion and 1.2 billion light-years in radius before it began expanding and later that same year Lemaître wrote in Monthly Notices on how, "the expansion of may be started..." (Note, this explicitly is NOT a big bang origin of the universe but the start of an expansion of a universe already in existence.) - 1929 Edwin Hubble: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, which paper included the "Hubble Law" [called that because Hubble failed to attribute it as Lemaître's Law].
- 1931 Arthur Eddington: Mentioning in passing Lemaître and the growing belief in an expanding universe, Eddington suggests: From the astronomical data it appears that the original radius of space [i.e., the universe] was 1200 million light years. At that radius the mutual attraction of the matter in the world [cosmos] was just sufficient to hold it together and check the tendency to expand. An expansion [from an initially static universe] began, slow at first; but the more widely the matter was scattered the less able was the mutual gravitation to check the expansion.
As widely documented and shown below, published theoretical and observational considerations that pre-dated Hubble suggested that many galaxies are receding.] The universe was expanding after all, just as General Relativity originally predicted! GR can support a static, contracting, or expanding universe.] ...
In other words, the Hubble law is just what one would expect for a homogeneous expanding universe, as predicted [retrodicted] by the Big Bang theory.
- 1918 Carl Wirtz [translation]: "..system of spiral nebulae is drifting apart by a velocity of 656 km with respect to the momentary location of the solar system as the center." - 1922 Alexander Friedmann: On the curvature of space.